Using Boto’s connect_to_region function with Eucalyptus 4.1

Typically, when documenting how to use the Python interface boto with Eucalyptus clouds, the function connect_<service> is always leveraged (<service> being ec2, s3, iam, sts, elb, cloudformation, cloudwatch, or autoscale).  The focus of this blog entry is to demonstrate how to use the connect_to_region function associated with each AWS service supported by Eucalyptus.  This will be very important when using boto with federated Eucalyptus clouds, which will be available in the release of HP Helion Eucalyptus 4.2.0.


To get started, the following requirements need to be met:

The Setup

Once the prerequisites are met, now we can focus on setting up the configuration file for boto.  Below is an example of a boto configuration file:

aws_access_key_id = <Eucalyptus Access Key ID>
aws_secret_access_key = <Eucalyptus Secret Access Key>
is_secure = False
endpoints_path = /root/boto-qa-setup1-endpoints.json

Notice the file boto-qa-setup1-endpoints.json.  This is a JSON file that contains the Eucalyptus service API endpoints correlating to the Eucalyptus cloud that would like to be accessed.  Here are the contents of the boto-qa-setup1-endpoints.json file:

 "autoscaling": {
 "eucalyptus": ""
 "cloudformation": {
 "eucalyptus": ""
 "cloudwatch": {
 "eucalyptus": ""
 "ec2": {
 "eucalyptus": ""
 "elasticloadbalancing": {
 "eucalyptus": ""
 "iam": {
 "eucalyptus": ""
 "s3": {
 "eucalyptus": ""
 "sts": {
 "eucalyptus": ""
 "swf": {
 "eucalyptus": ""

As you can see, each AWS service implemented by Eucalyptus is defined in this file.  With the boto configuration file and endpoints json file defined, the connect_to_region function in boto can be easily utilized.


To show how this setup works, ipython will be used as the demonstration environment.  Below is an example that shows how to use the connect_to_region function with the Compute service (EC2) against a Eucalyptus 4.1 cloud.

# ipython
Python 2.6.6 (r266:84292, Jan 22 2014, 09:42:36)
Type "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
IPython 0.13.2 -- An enhanced Interactive Python.
? -> Introduction and overview of IPython's features.
%quickref -> Quick reference.
help -> Python's own help system.
object? -> Details about 'object', use 'object??' for extra details.
In [1]: import boto.ec2
In [2]: ec2_connection = boto.ec2.connect_to_region('eucalyptus', port=8773)
In [3]: ec2_connection.get_all_instance_types()

Here is an example of describing the volumes and snapshots on a given Eucalyptus cloud:

In [3]: ec2_connection.get_all_volumes()
In [4]: ec2_connection.get_all_snapshots()

Just like the EC2 tutorial by boto demonstrates how to use connect_to_region with AWS EC2, this function can also be used against Eucalyptus 4.1 clouds as well.  As mentioned earlier, when region support (multiple Eucalyptus clouds) becomes available in Eucalyptus 4.2, this function will be very useful.


Using Boto’s connect_to_region function with Eucalyptus 4.1

Using AWS CodeDeploy with Eucalyptus Cloudformation for On-Premise Application Deployments


Recently, Amazon Web Services (AWS) announced that their CodeDeploy service supports on-premise instances.  This is extremely valuable – especially for developers and administrators to allow utilization of existing on-premise resources.

For teams who are using HP Helion Eucalyptus 4.1 (or who want to use Eucalyptus), this is even better news.  This feature – along with HP Helion Eucalyptus 4.1 Cloudformation – developers can deploy applications within a private cloud environment of HP Helion Eucalyptus.  This makes it even easier for developers and administrators to separate out and maintain production (AWS) versus development (HP Helion Eucalyptus) environments (or vice versa).  In addition, since HP Helion Eucalyptus strives for AWS compatibility, the Cloudformation templates used on Eucalyptus, can be used with AWS – with just a couple of modifications.

The Setup

To leverage on-premise instances with AWS CodeDeploy, please reference the AWS documentation entitled “Configure Existing On-Premises Instances by Using AWS CodeDeploy“.  To use these steps with an HP Helion Eucalyptus cloud, a slight change had to be done to the AWS CLI tools.  When using the ‘aws deploy register’ command, AWS CLI checks to see if the instance is running on an AWS environment by confirm if the instance metadata is present.  For on-premise cloud environments that provide the same service, this will cause the on-premise instance registration to fail.  To resolve this issue, I updated the AWS CLI tools with a patch that checks the instance metadata variable ‘AMI ID’ – which on AWS will begin with ‘ami’.  All images on Eucalyptus start with ’emi’ (i.e. Eucalyptus Machine Images).  With this patch, on-premise instance registration completes without a problem.

In addition to the patch, the following is needed on HP Helion Eucalyptus 4.1 cloud environments:

  1. Ubuntu Server 14.04 LTS EMI (EBS-backed or Instance Store-Backed)
  2. Eucalyptus IAM access policy actions that allow the user to use CloudFormations, AutoScaling and EC2 actions.  (Along with the Eucalyptus documentation, reference the AWS IAM documentation as well.)

Once these requirements have been met on the HP Helion Eucalyptus 4.1 environment, developers can use their AWS credentials in the Eucalyptus Cloudformation templates to leverage the on-premise instances with AWS CodeDeploy.

Using Eucalyptus Cloudformation For Instance Deployment

To help get started, I provided the following example Cloudformation templates:

Each template has specific parameters that need values.  The key parameters are the following:

  • UserKeyPair -> Eucalyptus EC2 Key Pair
  • UbuntuImageId -> Ubuntu 14.04 Cloud Image (EMI)
  • SSHLocation -> IP address range that can SSH into the Eucalyptus instances

Once there are values for these parameters, the Cloudformation templates can be utilized to deploy the on-premise instances.

Configure Existing On-Premises Instances by Using AWS CodeDeploy

After the AWS IAM prerequisites have been met for AWS CodeDeploy, use the example Cloudformation templates with HP Helion Eucalyptus.  Below is an example output of both templates being used on a given HP Helion Eucalyptus 4.1 cloud:

# euform-describe-stacks --region account2-admin@eucalyptus-cloud
STACK UbuntuCodeDeployTest CREATE_COMPLETE Complete! Eucalyptus Cloudformation Example => Deploy an instance that is configured and registered as an on-premise instance with AWS CodeDeploy 2015-04-14T02:42:01.325Z
PARAMETER UbuntuImageId emi-759e12a3
PARAMETER UserKeyPair account2-admin
OUTPUT InstanceId i-df9af6f5
OUTPUT AZ thugmotivation101
STACK UbuntuCodeDeployAutoScalingTest CREATE_COMPLETE Complete! Eucalyptus CloudFormation Sample Template AutoScaling-Single AZ for AWS CodeDeploy on-premise instances. The autoscaling group is configured to span in one availability zone (one cluster) and is Auto-Scaled based on the CPU utilization of the servers. In addition, each instance will be registered as an on-premise instance with AWS CodeDeploy. Please refer to for additional information. 2015-04-14T02:41:44.733Z
PARAMETER InstanceType m1.xlarge
PARAMETER UbuntuImageId emi-759e12a3
PARAMETER UserKeyPair account2-admin
PARAMETER Zone theinspiration
OUTPUT AutoScalingGroup UbuntuCodeDeployAutoScalingTest-ServerGroup-211FTERKLII6T

Since both Eucalyptus Cloudformation stacks have successfully deployed, let’s check out the instances:

# euca-describe-instances --region account2-admin@eucalyptus-cloud
RESERVATION r-feeb1023 968367465792 UbuntuCodeDeployTest-CodeDeploySecurityGroup-HP5L5HRU3WI98
INSTANCE i-df9af6f5 emi-759e12a3 euca-10-111-75-107.eucalyptus.internal running account2-admin 0 m1.xlarge 2015-04-14T02:42:11.346Z thugmotivation101 monitoring-disabled instance-store hvm sg-422ed69a x86_64
TAG instance i-df9af6f5 aws:cloudformation:logical-id CodeDeployInstance
TAG instance i-df9af6f5 aws:cloudformation:stack-id arn:aws:cloudformation::968367465792:stack/UbuntuCodeDeployTest/b210c81a-7e34-476f-9c59-7ea69ac9647a
TAG instance i-df9af6f5 aws:cloudformation:stack-name UbuntuCodeDeployTest
RESERVATION r-10df526e 968367465792 UbuntuCodeDeployAutoScalingTest-InstanceSecurityGroup-B2OVH0XWAFN5S
INSTANCE i-9b2b14e3 emi-759e12a3 euca-10-111-75-106.eucalyptus.internal running account2-admin 0 m1.xlarge 2015-04-14T02:42:05.939Z theinspiration monitoring-enabled instance-store hvm d739a9eb-ba3c-4f16-940c-366a516cebfe_theinspiration_1 sg-556b10ce x86_64
TAG instance i-9b2b14e3 Name UbuntuCodeDeployAutoScalingTest
TAG instance i-9b2b14e3 aws:autoscaling:groupName UbuntuCodeDeployAutoScalingTest-ServerGroup-211FTERKLII6T
TAG instance i-9b2b14e3 aws:cloudformation:logical-id ServerGroup
TAG instance i-9b2b14e3 aws:cloudformation:stack-id arn:aws:cloudformation::968367465792:stack/UbuntuCodeDeployAutoScalingTest/2a5aefc6-c5c3-41e8-a9b4-a9ca095c1696
TAG instance i-9b2b14e3 aws:cloudformation:stack-name UbuntuCodeDeployAutoScalingTest
RESERVATION r-6c8a9642 968367465792 UbuntuCodeDeployAutoScalingTest-InstanceSecurityGroup-B2OVH0XWAFN5S
INSTANCE i-12f1a3a3 emi-759e12a3 euca-10-111-75-111.eucalyptus.internal running account2-admin 0 m1.xlarge 2015-04-14T02:42:05.872Z theinspiration monitoring-enabled instance-store hvm 16a61ee7-d143-4f08-b926-c711ce335a1a_theinspiration_1 sg-556b10ce x86_64
TAG instance i-12f1a3a3 Name UbuntuCodeDeployAutoScalingTest
TAG instance i-12f1a3a3 aws:autoscaling:groupName UbuntuCodeDeployAutoScalingTest-ServerGroup-211FTERKLII6T
TAG instance i-12f1a3a3 aws:cloudformation:logical-id ServerGroup
TAG instance i-12f1a3a3 aws:cloudformation:stack-id arn:aws:cloudformation::968367465792:stack/UbuntuCodeDeployAutoScalingTest/2a5aefc6-c5c3-41e8-a9b4-a9ca095c1696
TAG instance i-12f1a3a3 aws:cloudformation:stack-name UbuntuCodeDeployAutoScalingTest

As we can see above, the Eucalyptus Cloudformation instances are tagged just as if they were running on AWS – again demonstrating the AWS compatibility desired by HP Helion Eucalyptus.

Now, look in the AWS Management Console, under the AWS CodeDeploy service.  In the dropbox under ‘AWS CodeDeploy’, select ‘On-Premise Instances’:

Displaying the dropdown box options under the AWS CodeDeploy title
Displaying the dropdown box options under AWS CodeDeploy

Once that has been selected, the on-premise instances running on HP Helion Eucalyptus should show up as ‘Registered’:

Display of Registered On-Premise Instances for AWS CodeDeploy
Display of Registered On-Premise Instances for AWS CodeDeploy

Now developers can proceed with remaining steps of using AWS CodeDeploy to do an application deployment.


As demonstrated, the new feature in AWS CodeDeploy allows developers to gain a true sense of a hybrid cloud environment.  This feature – along with HP Helion Eucalyptus’s AWS compatibility – makes it easy for developers and administrators to use the same toolset to deploy, manage and maintain both public and private cloud environments.  Don’t forget – using AWS CodeDeploy with on-premise instances does have an AWS pricing cost associated with it.  Check out AWS CodeDeploy Pricing for more details.


Using AWS CodeDeploy with Eucalyptus Cloudformation for On-Premise Application Deployments

Eucalyptus & Midokura | AWS VPC on-premise

Solid blog entry discussing how to set up Eucalyptus VPC using Midokura

A sysadmin born in the cloud

About 2 years ago, AWS passed all new account and migrated existing ones to have “EC2 classic” instances into a VPC.

A lot of new features came out from this but most importantly, VPC would provide the ability for everyone to have backend applications running in Private. No public traffic, no access to and from the internet unless wanted. A keystone for AWS to promote the Public cloud as a safe place.

So, Eucalyptus is now taking VPC into the system as one of the key feature for years to come, and have decided to go with Midokura to orchestrate and manage networking.

Midokura is a SDN software which is used to manage routing between instances, to the internet, security groups etc. The super cool thing about about Midokura is its capacity to be high-available and scalable in time. Of course being originally a networking guy, I also find super…

View original post 1,939 more words

Eucalyptus & Midokura | AWS VPC on-premise

Eucalyptus and CEPH for Elastic Block Storage

A sysadmin born in the cloud

Today I did my first install of CEPH, which I used as backend system for the Elastic Block Storage (EBS) in Eucalyptus. The advantage of CEPH is that it is a distributed system which is going to provide you replication (persistence for data), redundancy (we are using a pool of resources, not a single target) and scalability : the easiest way to add capacity is to add nodes which will be used for storage, and those nodes can be simple machines.

I won’t go too deep into CEPH installation. The official documentation is quite good for anyone to get up to speed quickly. I personally had no troubles using CentOS7 (el7).
Also, I won’t go too deep into Eucalyptus installation, I will simply share with you the CEPH config files and my NC configuration files which have some values non-indicated in Eucalyptus docs.

I will simply spend some time to configure a…

View original post 321 more words

Eucalyptus and CEPH for Elastic Block Storage

EDGE Networking in Eucalyptus

A sysadmin born in the cloud

We are just about to have Eucalyptus 4.1 released with VPC implementations and some new features, but I think that it is quite important to take a few time to dig into EDGE networking and networking modes in General with Eucalyptus.

For years, we had 3 mainly used modes :

    • AWS Security Groups supported and VLANs created to give L2 separation
    • All traffic goes via the Cluster Controller for cross-groups communication
    • Requires a DHCP clean-environment
    • AWS SG supported but no L2 separation
    • All traffic goes via the Cluster Controller for cross-groups communication
    • Requires a DHCP clean environment
    • Customer DHCP server will assign IP addresses to instances
    • No AWS SG compatibility

As we can figure out, if you needed the AWS compatibility you also had to deal with the CC handling all the instances traffic. But the problem is that you also had to dedicate a physical machine to…

View original post 1,008 more words

EDGE Networking in Eucalyptus

Adding Eucalyptus Load Balancer Access Logging for Eucalyptus Cloud Users


Eucalyptus continues to strive as the best on-premise AWS-compatible Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS).  One of the great things about Eucalyptus being an open source platform, is that if there is an AWS feature that any cloud administrator/developer wants to add, they have the ability to do it.  This blog entry will cover how to enable cloud users to have access to the Eucalyptus Load Balancer access logs – similar to how this is accomplished with Amazon Web Services Elastic Load Balancer service.

Before we dive in, I would like to give special thanks to the following members of the Eucalyptus Engineering Team.  Without their hard work, this blog would not be possible:

Special thanks to these individuals for their continued contributions to the Eucalyptus software.


Currently, when a cloud user launches a Eucalyptus Load Balancer, they will see something similar to the following:

# eulb-create-lb hasp-euca-lb --listener "lb-port=80, protocol=http, instance-port=8888, instance-protocol=http" --availability-zone Honest
# eulb-describe-lbs
LOAD_BALANCER hasp-euca-elb 2014-12-11T23:34:35.397Z

Notice the DNS name of the load balancer.  It has the following format:

{load balancer name}-{Account ID}.{Load Balancer DNS Subdomain}.{Eucalyptus Cloud DNS Domain}

The “{load balancer name}-{Account ID}” string is the important information in this value.

From the cloud administrator’s perspective, the load balancer is an AutoScaling group.  More information can be found in the following resources:

If the cloud administrator describes the instances running under the ‘eucalyptus‘ account and the load balancer above is running, the following would be displayed:

# euca-describe-instances 
RESERVATION r-278c161e 094999295155 euca-internal-325271821652-hasp-euca-elb
INSTANCE i-135b4b0a emi-7a4367b8 euca-172-17-156-121.future.internal running euca-elb 0 c1.medium 2014-12-11T23:34:44.428Z Honest monitoring-enabled instance-store hvm c4946e25-64ed-4453-808c-9ff2ab831b47_Honest_1 sg-da911c98 arn:aws:iam::094999295155:instance-profile/internal/loadbalancer/loadbalancer-vm-325271821652-hasp-euca-elb x86_64
TAG instance i-135b4b0a Name loadbalancer-resources
TAG instance i-135b4b0a aws:autoscaling:groupName asg-euca-internal-elb-325271821652-hasp-euca-elb
TAG instance i-135b4b0a euca:node

Notice the ‘RESERVATION’ line that contains the security group that the instance is using.  If the ‘euca-internal-‘ prefix is removed, the security group has the following format:

{Account ID}-{load balancer Name}

This information matches the Load Balancer launched by the cloud user and will be the base for the solution.

Building the Foundation

In order to get started, the solution needs to be applied from the Cloud Administrator (i.e. admin user in the ‘eucalyptus’ account) perspective.  This solution can not be applied by any other type of cloud user.  In addition to cloud administrator user requirement, the following is needed:

Once these requirements are met, the environment is ready to go.

Create ELB Access Log User

A user (e.g. ‘elb-osg-logger’) needs to be created under the ‘eucalyptus’ account which will be used with the custom python script to store the load balancer access logs to the OSG bucket.  To create the user, after sourcing the cloud administrator credentials, use euare-usercreate:

# euare-usercreate -u elb-osg-logger -k 

Store these credentials in a safe place.  Next, customizing the load balancer instance.

Customize the Load Balancer

To begin, a Eucalyptus Load Balancer needs to be launched in order to modify it.  The goal here is to build an image from this instance using euca-bundle-instance.  We will start with the load balancer mentioned earlier:

# euca-describe-instances 
RESERVATION r-5e1d4d17 094999295155 euca-internal-325271821652-hasp-euca-lb
INSTANCE i-315dd646 emi-7a4367b8 euca-172-17-177-235.future.internal running euca-elb 0 c1.medium 2014-12-11T04:23:04.441Z Honest monitoring-enabled instance-store hvm b134a0bc-cfc4-4c6e-84ba-4fd1df160407_Honest_1 sg-b6cc605e arn:aws:iam::094999295155:instance-profile/internal/loadbalancer/loadbalancer-vm-325271821652-hasp-euca-lb x86_64
TAG instance i-315dd646 Name loadbalancer-resources
TAG instance i-315dd646 aws:autoscaling:groupName asg-euca-internal-elb-325271821652-hasp-euca-lb
TAG instance i-315dd646 euca:node

To access the load balancer, authorize SSH to the instance:

# euca-authorize -P tcp -p 22 euca-internal-325271821652-hasp-euca-elb

Next, SSH into the ELB instance:

# ssh -i euca-elb.priv

Once inside the instance, install the EPEL package repository:

# yum localinstall --nogpgcheck -y

After the package has been installed, use yum to install the python-pip package:

# yum install python-pip -y

Next, use pip to upgrade and install the ‘boto‘ and ‘argparse‘ modules:

# pip install --upgrade boto argparse

Now, its time to add the custom python script.

Add Access Logs Script

The Access Log Script performs the following actions:

  • Creates a bucket with READ bucket ACL for Account  ID which launches the Eucalyptus Load Balancer
    • bucket created with the following format – s3://access_logs-{LB name}_{public-IPV4 of LB}_{LB instance numeric ID}
  • Places a copy of “/var/log/load-balancer-access.log.1” in the bucket with READ object ACL for Account ID which owns the Eucalyptus Load Balancer
    • the file in the bucket will have the following naming format – elb-access-{timestamp DDMMYY-HourMinSec}.log
  • Bonus – since Eucalyptus 4.0.0, OSG has supported object lifecycle management.  If lifecycle value is passed and its greater than 0, the object lifecycle is applied to all objects in the bucket.

To add the script to the instance, use curl:

# curl -o

Once the script has been downloaded, edit the script and add the ‘elb-osg-logger’ user credentials, the S3_URL and EC2_URL to the script in the following locations:

 EC2Connection.DefaultRegionEndpoint = '<EC2_URL - Eucalyptus Cloud Compute API DNS Name>'
 ec2conn = EC2Connection(aws_access_key_id="<elb-osg-logger user Access Key ID>",
 aws_secret_access_key="<elb-osg-logger user Secret Access Key>",
 is_secure=False, port="8773")
 s3 = S3Connection(aws_access_key_id="<elb-osg-logger user Access Key ID>",
 aws_secret_access_key="<elb-osg-logger user Secret Access Key>",
 host="<S3_URL - Eucalyptus Cloud OSG API DNS Name>",
 is_secure=False, port=8773, calling_format=OrdinaryCallingFormat())

Set the script to be executable using chmod:

# chmod a+x /root/

Now its time to configure HAProxy to log information.

Enable HAProxy Logging

The Eucalyptus Load Balancer uses haproxy to perform load balancing.  To enable logging, the following files need to be edited:

  • /etc/load-balancer-servo/haproxy_template.conf 
    • under the ‘global’ section add – log local3 info
    • under the ‘default’ section add – log global
  • /usr/lib/python2.6/site-packages/servo/haproxy/
    • change the following section:
 if protocol == 'http' or protocol == 'https':
 self.__content_map[section_name].append('log-format httplog\ %f\ %b\ %s\ %ST\ %ts\ %Tq\ %Tw\ %Tc\ %Tr\ %Tt') 
 elif protocol == 'tcp' or protocol == 'ssl':
 self.__content_map[section_name].append('log-format tcplog\ %f\ %b\ %s\ %ts\ %Tw\ %Tc\ %Tt')


if protocol == 'http' or protocol == 'https':
 self.__content_map[section_name].append('log-format httplog\ %f\ %b\ %s\ %ST\ %ts\ %Tq\ %Tw\ %Tc\ %Tr\ %Tt\ %{+Q}r\ %ci:%cp\ %fi:%fp\ %si:%sp\ req_size=%U\ resp_size=%B')
 elif protocol == 'tcp' or protocol == 'ssl':
 self.__content_map[section_name].append('log-format tcplog\ %f\ %b\ %s\ %ts\ %Tw\ %Tc\ %Tt\ %{+Q}r\ %ci:%cp\ %fi:%fp\ %si:%sp\ req_size=%U\ resp_size=%B')

For more information about the log-format in HAProxy, reference the HAProxy documentation on log format. The information that can be logged is highly customizable.  Reference the AWS ELB documentation regarding Access Log Entries to get a better sense of the logging experience on AWS.

Logging for HAProxy is complete.  Next, rsyslog and logrotate need to be configured.

Log Management

Storing the HAProxy logs, and rotating them is very important to this solution.  The script takes the rotated log, and stores it in the OSG bucket for the access logs.  The purpose of this is to make sure the file is not being written to when its being sent to the OSG bucket.  To start out, download the load-balancer.conf file to use with logrotate using curl:

# curl -o load-balancer.conf

This is the logrotate configuration file that the cronjob script will call to rotate the log file, then execute the script with a 1 day object lifecycle. To change the lifecycle, just change the value of the –lifecycle option in the load-balancer.conf file.

Next, update rsyslog to make sure the latest is running on the instance:

# yum upgrade rsyslog -y

After this has completed, add the following to the /etc/rsyslog.d/load-balancer.conf file:

local3.*       /var/log/load-balancer-access.log

Follow this step up by uncommenting and adding the following lines in /etc/rsyslog.conf:

$ModLoad imudp
$UDPServerRun 514

To wrap up, we need to add a script that will be kicked off by the cronjob.

Cronjob Script

To kick off the log rotation, add the ‘elb-logrotate‘ script to the instance using curl:

# curl -o elb-logrotate

Using ‘crontab -e’, set up a cron for 5 minutes (or however often the access log information would like to be uploaded to the bucket):

*/5 * * * * /root/elb-logrotate

Clean Up

After completing all the customizations, the instance needs to be prepared for bundling.  Run the following commands to prepare the instance:

# echo "" > /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules
# echo "" > /lib/udev/rules.d/75-persistent-net-generator.rules

If PERSISTENT_DHCLIENT is not in the  /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file, then add it:

# grep PERSISTENT_DHCLIENT /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
# echo "PERSISTENT_DHCLIENT=yes" >> /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

Now we can exit out the instance.

Creating the New Eucalyptus Load Balancer EMI

After finishing with the instance customizations, the instance is ready to be bundled and registered.  First, use euca-bundle-instance to bundle and upload the instance.  Use euca-describe-bundle-tasks to check on the status of the bundling operation.  Once the bundling operation has been completed, use euca-register to register the new ELB EMI:

# euca-bundle-instance -b load-balancer-access-logs -p eucalyptus-load-balancer-image-access-log i-315dd646
BUNDLE bun-315dd646 i-315dd646 load-balancer-access-logs eucalyptus-load-balancer-image-access-log 2014-12-11T04:07:59.835Z 2014-12-11T04:07:59.835Z pending 0 load-balancer-access-logs/eucalyptus-load-balancer-image-access-log.manifest.xml
# euca-describe-bundle-tasks
BUNDLE bun-315dd646 i-315dd646 load-balancer-access-logs eucalyptus-load-balancer-image-access-log 2014-12-11T04:07:59.835Z 2014-12-11T04:09:57.671Z complete 0 load-balancer-access-logs/eucalyptus-load-balancer-image-access-log.manifest.xml
# euca-register -a x86_64 -n load-balancer-access-logs load-balancer-access-logs/eucalyptus-load-balancer-image-access-log.manifest.xml --virtualization-type hvm
IMAGE emi-7a4367b8

Now that the new Eucalyptus Load Balancer EMI is register, update the cloud property ‘loadbalancing.loadbalancer_emi‘ to display the new ELB EMI:

# euca-modify-property -p loadbalancing.loadbalancer_emi=emi-7a4367b8
PROPERTY loadbalancing.loadbalancer_emi emi-7a4367b8 was emi-cf4fb988

Now, lets test out the changes.

Testing Out the ELB with Access Logging

To test it out, you can use either the Cloud Administrator, or a user from a ‘non-eucalyptus’ account.  In the example below, a user from a ‘non-eucalyptus’ account was used.  If a ‘non-eucalyptus’ account user is used, make sure the user has the appropriate IAM access policies for EC2 (Compute), S3 (OSG), and ELB (Eucalyptus Load Balancer).

First, create the Eucalyptus Load Balancer:

# eulb-create-lb hasp-euca-lb --listener "lb-port=80, protocol=http, instance-port=80, instance-protocol=http" --availability-zone Honest --region account2-user11@

Next, launch an instance that has a web service running on port 80.  In this example, I used a cloud-init configuration file to install nginx on an Ubuntu 14.04 (Trusty Tahr) Cloud Image:

# euca-run-instances -k account2-user11 -t m1.medium emi-59a742d0 --user-data-file nginx-cloudinit.config --region account2-user11@
# euca-describe-instances --region account2-user11@
RESERVATION r-5c16c716 325271821652 default
INSTANCE i-45c1ebd1 emi-59a742d0 euca-172-17-248-189.future.internal running account2-user11 0 m1.medium 2014-12-05T21:53:51.197Z Honest monitoring-disabled instance-store hvm sg-6ef9907f x86_64

Register the instance with the ELB:

# eulb-register-instances-with-lb --instances i-45c1ebd1 hasp-euca-lb --region account2-user11@
INSTANCE i-45c1ebd1

Generate some traffic to the ELB using curl or some other tool to populate the HAProxy log file.  Based upon how often the cronjob was set to execute, use s3cmd to see the bucket created in the ‘eucalyptus’ account (i.e. Cloud Administrator) for the access logs.  For information regarding s3cmd configuration files, refer to my previous blog:

# ./s3cmd/s3cmd --config=.s3cfg-cloud-admin ls
2014-09-18 02:59 s3://51c700-download-manifests
2014-12-11 04:31 s3://access_logs-hasp-euca-lb_10.104.7.9_315dd646
2014-09-18 02:43 s3://centos-6.5-x86_64-20140917
2014-09-18 02:46 s3://centos-7-x86_64-20140917
2014-11-05 22:05 s3://centos6.4-kernel
2014-11-05 21:54 s3://centos6.4-ramdisk
2014-11-05 22:08 s3://centos6.4-test
2014-09-18 02:52 s3://debian-7-x86_64-20140917
# ./s3cmd/s3cmd --config=.s3cfg-cloud-admin ls s3://access_logs-hasp-euca-lb_10.104.7.9_315dd646
2014-12-11 04:31 817 s3://access_logs-hasp-euca-lb_10.104.7.9_315dd646/elb-access-11122014-043122.log
2014-12-11 05:13 78764 s3://access_logs-hasp-euca-lb_10.104.7.9_315dd646/elb-access-11122014-051353.log
2014-12-11 05:20 58202 s3://access_logs-hasp-euca-lb_10.104.7.9_315dd646/elb-access-11122014-052002.log

Once that has been confirmed, create another s3cmd configuration file for the ‘non-eucalyptus’ user, and confirm the user can list the contents of the bucket:

# ./s3cmd/s3cmd --config=.s3cfg-acct2-user11 ls s3://access_logs-hasp-euca-lb_10.104.7.9_315dd646
2014-12-11 04:31 817 s3://access_logs-hasp-euca-lb_10.104.7.9_315dd646/elb-access-11122014-043122.log
2014-12-11 05:13 78764 s3://access_logs-hasp-euca-lb_10.104.7.9_315dd646/elb-access-11122014-051353.log
2014-12-11 05:20 58202 s3://access_logs-hasp-euca-lb_10.104.7.9_315dd646/elb-access-11122014-052002.log

After that has been confirmed, download one of the log files and confirm the contents:

# ./s3cmd/s3cmd --config=.s3cfg-acct2-user11 get s3://access_logs-hasp-euca-lb_10.104.7.9_315dd646/elb-access-11122014-051353.log .
s3://access_logs-hasp-euca-lb_10.104.7.9_315dd646/elb-access-11122014-051353.log -> ./elb-access-11122014-051353.log [1 of 1]
 78764 of 78764 100% in 0s 238.84 kB/s done
# cat elb-access-11122014-051353.log
Dec 11 04:32:11 localhost haproxy[1070]: httplog http-80 backend-http-80 http-80 200 -- 0 0 0 1 1 "HEAD / HTTP/1.1" req_size=142 resp_size=241
Dec 11 05:05:35 localhost haproxy[1070]: httplog http-80 backend-http-80 http-80 200 -- 0 0 0 1 1 "HEAD / HTTP/1.1" req_size=142 resp_size=241
Dec 11 05:05:36 localhost haproxy[1070]: httplog http-80 backend-http-80 http-80 200 -- 4 0 1 1 6 "HEAD / HTTP/1.1" req_size=142 resp_size=241
Dec 11 05:05:38 localhost haproxy[1070]: httplog http-80 backend-http-80 http-80 200 -- 5 0 0 1 6 "HEAD / HTTP/1.1" req_size=142 resp_size=241
Dec 11 05:05:39 localhost haproxy[1070]: httplog http-80 backend-http-80 http-80 200 -- 0 0 0 1 1 "HEAD / HTTP/1.1" req_size=142 resp_size=241
Dec 11 05:05:40 localhost haproxy[1070]: httplog http-80 backend-http-80 http-80 200 -- 0 0 0 1 1 "HEAD / HTTP/1.1" req_size=142 resp_size=241
Dec 11 05:05:41 localhost haproxy[1070]: httplog http-80 backend-http-80 http-80 200 -- 0 0 0 1 1 "HEAD / HTTP/1.1" req_size=142 resp_size=241
Dec 11 05:05:42 localhost haproxy[1070]: httplog http-80 backend-http-80 http-80 200 -- 4 0 1 1 6 "HEAD / HTTP/1.1" req_size=142 resp_size=241

How is this ‘non-eucalyptus’ user able to see and download the contents of this bucket?  This is because of the script that creates the access log bucket, and uploads the logs to the bucket.  By grabbing the account ID from the instance metadata ‘security group’ category, the script adds bucket and object READ ACLs for the account ID.  The only issue here is that the cloud administrator will still need to communicate the bucket that the cloud user can access for the logs.  With the extra bonus of using the object lifecycle, the cloud administrator doesn’t have to worry about managing the buckets.  The objects will remove themselves after the define period of time.


Even though the solution isn’t exactly like AWS ELB Access Logs feature, it does provide a solution that is very similar to it.  The only thing missing is the service API interaction to enable/disable the access logging feature, set the interval and define the bucket that will be used.  Hopefully, this will be a feature we will see in the not too distant feature.  Thanks for hanging in there with me.  I hope you enjoy!  Feedback is always welcome.


Adding Eucalyptus Load Balancer Access Logging for Eucalyptus Cloud Users